Medical Genetics: Mosaicism
What is mosaicism?
Mosaicism is when a person has 2 or more genetically different sets of cells in his or her body. Chromosomes are stick-shaped structures in the middle of each cell in the body. Each cell has 46 chromosomes grouped in 23 pairs. A person with mosaicism may have some cells in his or her body with 46 chromosomes, but other cells with 47 chromosomes. This can cause health problems in the body.
What causes mosaicism?
Mosaicism may be caused by an error in mitosis. Mitosis (my-TOH-sis) is the dividing of body cells. It’s how a baby in the womb grows. Mitosis causes the number of chromosomes to double to 92, and then split in half back to 46. This process repeats constantly as the baby grows. Mitosis continues throughout your lifetime. It replaces skin cells, blood cells, and other types of cells that are damaged or naturally die.
If there is an error in mitosis, a cell doesn’t split evenly into two cells. The result is that some cells have the normal number of 46 chromosomes, and other cells have more (47) or fewer (45) chromosomes.
Types of conditions caused by mosaicism
Mosaicism can cause many different kinds of disorders, including:
Ichthyosis with confetti. This is a disorder that causes red, scaly skin all over the body.
Klinefelter syndrome. This syndrome can cause low amounts of testosterone. This can lead to problems with sexual development, and other issues.
Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. This disorder causes a red birthmark called a port-wine stain. It also causes excess growth of soft tissues and bones, and abnormal veins.
Mosaic Down syndrome. Down syndrome is a condition that causes intellectual disabilities and delays, weak muscles, and flat facial features. It can also cause a heart defect, digestive problems, thyroid problems, and other health issues.
Pallister-Killian mosaic syndrome. This is a developmental disorder that causes weak muscles, intellectual disability, thin hair, patches of abnormal skin color, and other birth defects.
Ring chromosome 14 syndrome. This condition causes seizures, intellectual disability, and delayed speech and motor development.
SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome. This is a rare disorder that can cause a child to be born without eyeballs. It can also cause seizures, brain problems, and delayed growth.
Triple X syndrome. This condition is caused by an extra X chromosome in each of a female’s cells. It can cause learning disabilities, delayed language skills, and problems with motor skills and muscles.
Trisomy 18. This condition can cause slow growth in the womb, heart defects, a small head, and other defects. Only a small number of children with this condition live past their first year.
Turner syndrome. This is a condition in females that causes short height, ovarian problems, lack of fertility, and heart defects.
1351Baby shower guest sign in ideas
2533Boy baby shower decorations ideas
1607Girl baby shower favors ideas
1791TOP 10 Girl baby shower themes ideas for 2017
600Baby shower fruit tray ideas
3923Baby shower snack ideas pinterest
4319Baby shower afternoon tea ideas
1909Purchase The Special Twin Baby Shower Cakes From Your Local Stores
4291High tea baby shower ideas – 10 ways to have a High tea baby shower party!
2553TOP 10 Baby girl baby shower food ideas
218710 Useful Triplet baby shower ideas for you!
2463Baby shower ideas pinterest boy
554Welcoming a Baby Angel in Style with the Best Baby shower souvenir ideas
2041Planning a Baby shower program ideas – detailed guide
4315Baby shower centerpieces ideas pictures – 10 methods to brighten your baby shower party
23689It is Safe to Eat Raw Meat – A Guide to Choosing the Right Type
3165Baby shower charades ideas
4327Baby shower onesie ideas – 10 secrets to know
3163Fun ideas for a baby shower
21720Week 23 of Pregnancy – The Big Listener
2725Couples baby shower food ideas
23753Additives in Almond Milk and How to Make the Real Stuff
3197Baby shower for second baby ideas
566Baby shower decoration ideas for a boy
2241Baby boy baby shower decorating ideas
246Baby shower balloon ideas
2335Baby shower ideas for gender reveal
3345Baby shower ideas gift
3085Baby shower simple food ideas
1825Fancy baby shower ideas
678Baby shower table centerpiece ideas
842Baseball themed baby shower ideas
2685Homemade baby shower gift basket ideas
2565Baby shower ideas for a baby girl
23730Sizzling Butter Shrimp
628Baby shower reveal ideas