What is a birth injury?
What causes birth injury?
A difficult birth or injury to the baby can occur because of the baby’s size or the position of the baby during labor and delivery. Conditions that may be linked to a difficult birth include:
Large babies. Birthweight over about 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams).
Prematurity. Babies born before 37 weeks (premature babies have more fragile bodies and may be more easily injured).
Cephalopelvic disproportion. The size and shape of the mother’s pelvis is not adequate for the baby to be born vaginally.
Dystocia. Difficult labor or childbirth.
Abnormal birthing presentation. An example of this is a buttocks first (breech) delivery.
What are some of the more common birth injuries?
The following are common birth injuries:
Brachial palsy. This occurs when the group of nerves that supplies the arms and hands (brachial plexus) is injured. It is most common when there is difficulty delivering the baby’s shoulder, called shoulder dystocia. The baby loses the ability to flex and rotate the arm. If the injury caused bruising and swelling around the nerves, movement should return within a few months. Tearing of the nerve may cause permanent nerve damage. Special exercises are used to help maintain the arm’s range of motion while healing occurs.
Bruising or forceps marks. Some babies may show signs of bruising on the face or head simply because of the trauma of passing though the birth canal and contact with the mother’s pelvic bones and tissues. Forceps used with delivery can leave temporary marks or bruises on the baby’s face and head. Babies delivered by vacuum extraction may have some scalp bruising or a scalp cut (laceration).
Caput succedaneum. Caput is a significant swelling of the soft tissues of the baby’s scalp. This develops as the baby travels through the birth canal. Some babies have some bruising of the area. The swelling usually goes away in a few days without problems. Babies delivered by vacuum extraction are more likely to have this condition.
Cephalohematoma. This is an area of bleeding between the bone and its fibrous covering. It often appears several hours after birth as a raised lump on the baby’s head. Over time, the body reabsorbs the blood. Depending on the size, most cephalohematomas take 2 weeks to 3 months to disappear completely. If the area of bleeding is large, some babies may develop jaundice as the red blood cells break down.
Facial paralysis. During labor or birth, pressure on a baby’s face may injure the facial nerve. This may also occur when forceps are used for delivery. The injury is often seen when the baby cries. There is no movement on the side of the face with the injury and the eye can’t be closed. If the nerve was only bruised, the paralysis usually improves in a few weeks. If the nerve was torn, surgery may be needed.
Fractures. Fracture of the clavicle or collarbone is the most common fracture during labor and delivery. The clavicle may break when there is difficulty delivering the baby’s shoulder or during a breech delivery. A baby with a fractured clavicle rarely moves the arm on the side of the break. However, healing occurs quickly. As new bone forms, a firm lump on the clavicle often develops in the first 10 days. If the fracture is painful, limiting movement of the arm and shoulder with a soft bandage or splint may be helpful.
Subconjunctival hemorrhage. This is the breakage of small blood vessels in the eyes of a baby. One or both of the eyes may have a bright red band in the white part of the eye. This is very common and does not cause eye damage. The redness is usually absorbed in a week to 10 days.
1351Baby shower guest sign in ideas
2533Boy baby shower decorations ideas
1607Girl baby shower favors ideas
1791TOP 10 Girl baby shower themes ideas for 2017
600Baby shower fruit tray ideas
3923Baby shower snack ideas pinterest
1909Purchase The Special Twin Baby Shower Cakes From Your Local Stores
4319Baby shower afternoon tea ideas
4291High tea baby shower ideas – 10 ways to have a High tea baby shower party!
2553TOP 10 Baby girl baby shower food ideas
218710 Useful Triplet baby shower ideas for you!
2463Baby shower ideas pinterest boy
554Welcoming a Baby Angel in Style with the Best Baby shower souvenir ideas
4315Baby shower centerpieces ideas pictures – 10 methods to brighten your baby shower party
2041Planning a Baby shower program ideas – detailed guide
23689It is Safe to Eat Raw Meat – A Guide to Choosing the Right Type
3165Baby shower charades ideas
4327Baby shower onesie ideas – 10 secrets to know
3181Cheap baby shower gift ideas for guests
1311Candy buffet ideas for baby shower
2565Baby shower ideas for a baby girl
3641Cake ideas for girl baby shower
2415Baby shower treats ideas
140Baby shower food ideas for a boy
3103Baby shower pamper party ideas
2897Country western baby shower ideas
1725Baby shower announcements ideas
2531Fun baby shower gift ideas
4091Baby shower pamper cake ideas
3149Non baby shower ideas
3033Baby shower food ideas for twins
2427Good baby shower ideas
2173Easy baby shower cake ideas
3937Baby shower girl food ideas
856Baby shower catering ideas
432Baby shower activity ideas