Anatomy and Function of the Urinary System
|Click Image to Enlarge|
How does the urinary system work?
The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has taken the food components that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood.
The kidney and urinary systems help the body to eliminate liquid waste called urea, and to keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys. This is where it is removed along with water and other wastes in the form of urine.
Other important functions of the kidneys include blood pressure regulation and the production of erythropoietin. This controls red blood cell production in the bone marrow. Kidneys also regulate the acid-base balance and conserve fluids.
|Click Image to Enlarge|
Kidney and urinary system parts and their functions
Two kidneys. This pair of purplish-brown organs is located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. Their function is to:
Remove waste products and drugs from the body
Balance the body’s fluids
Release hormones to regulate blood pressure
Control production of red blood cells
The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney.
Two ureters. These narrow tubes carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Muscles in the ureter walls continually tighten and relax forcing urine downward, away from the kidneys. If urine backs up, or is allowed to stand still, a kidney infection can develop. About every 10 to 15 seconds, small amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters.
Bladder. This triangle-shaped, hollow organ is located in the lower belly. It is held in place by ligaments that are attached to other organs and the pelvic bones. The bladder’s walls relax and expand to store urine, and contract and flatten to empty urine through the urethra. The typical healthy adult bladder can store up to 2 cups of urine for 2 to 5 hours.
Two sphincter muscles. These circular muscles help keep urine from leaking by closing tightly like a rubber band around the opening of the bladder.
Nerves in the bladder. The nerves alert a person when it is time to urinate, or empty the bladder.
Urethra. This tube allows urine to pass outside the body. The brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten. This squeezes urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax to let urine exit the bladder through the urethra. When all the signals happen in the correct order, normal urination happens.
Facts about urine
Normal, healthy urine is a pale straw or transparent yellow color.
Darker yellow or honey colored urine means you need more water.
A darker, brownish color may indicate a liver problem or severe dehydration.
Pinkish or red urine may mean blood in the urine.
1351Baby shower guest sign in ideas
2533Boy baby shower decorations ideas
1607Girl baby shower favors ideas
1791TOP 10 Girl baby shower themes ideas for 2017
600Baby shower fruit tray ideas
3923Baby shower snack ideas pinterest
4319Baby shower afternoon tea ideas
1909Purchase The Special Twin Baby Shower Cakes From Your Local Stores
4291High tea baby shower ideas – 10 ways to have a High tea baby shower party!
2553TOP 10 Baby girl baby shower food ideas
218710 Useful Triplet baby shower ideas for you!
2463Baby shower ideas pinterest boy
554Welcoming a Baby Angel in Style with the Best Baby shower souvenir ideas
2041Planning a Baby shower program ideas – detailed guide
4315Baby shower centerpieces ideas pictures – 10 methods to brighten your baby shower party
23689It is Safe to Eat Raw Meat – A Guide to Choosing the Right Type
3165Baby shower charades ideas
4327Baby shower onesie ideas – 10 secrets to know
1503Baby shower table decorations ideas
2675Girl and boy baby shower ideas
1609Baby shower food ideas easy
3105Unique baby shower ideas for girl
1110Baby shower invite wording ideas
1155Garden baby shower ideas
1114Baby shower favor ideas for boys
1653Unique baby shower decorating ideas
968Cricut baby shower ideas
4033Unique baby shower gift ideas for a boy
1036Baby shower unique ideas
23777Body Odor Explained and What You Can Do Control It
3057Baby shower cake decorations ideas
23815Emotional Development Milestones 8 to 10 months
2783Halloween baby shower cake ideas
2691New ideas for baby shower
2721Centerpiece ideas for baby shower for a girl
2639Baby shower favor bag ideas